Layout and testing of woodwork

Hand tools
Boring tools
Chisels

Files
Gouges
Grinding tools
Hammering tools
Holding tools (other)
Knives
Layout tools
Micrometer caliper
Planes
Pliers
Saws
Screwdrivers
Sloyd knives
Steel scale
Vernier calipers
Vises
Wire gages

Metalworking
Cutting threads
Drilling
Filing
Hacksawing
Layout metalworking
Nuts & bolts
Riveting

Woodworking
Bolting woodwork
Cutting woodwork
Finishing woodwork
Glueing woodwork
Jointing woodwork
Layout & testing
Layout, using paterns
Lumber & lumbering
Measuring with rule
Nails for woodwork
Painting wood
Screws woodwork
Shaping woodwork
Structure of wood
Try square usage

The fabrication of lumber requires not only the use of the tools described elsewhere, but the knowledge of certain woodworking processes, the first of which is squaring. This process involves three distinct operations:

  1. Layout — laying out the stock to a rough size
  2. Cutting — sawing the stock
  3. Shaping—planing all surf aces to reduce the stock to the proper size

The rough-stock list

The bill of materials, which is the itemized list showing the thickness, width, and length of the various pieces, is used to lay out the stock. The dimensions given in the bill are the sizes to which each piece must be planed; it is, of course, necessary to start with pieces that are a little larger.

A rough-stock list should be made from the bill of materials by adding k inch to the thickness and 2 inch to the length and width. If a bill of materials calls for a piece of wood 3/4” X 4 1/2" X 12 1/2", the rough-stock list should be made up to read 7/8" X 5" X 12 1/2"

Laying out the stock

With this rough-stock list prepared, the work of laying out the stock is undertaken. The board from which the stock is to be cut should be examined for defects or damage that would make part of the stock useless. If any such defects are found, the stock will have to be laid out so that they can be removed.

When laying out the stock, the first operation is to draw a line across the grain at right angles to the edge. The trysquare is used for this. The handle of the trysquare must be placed against the edge so that the line drawn will be at right angles to the edge. The location of this first line should be beyond any checks which may be in the end of the stock. From this line A the required length is measured off. Line B is squared across the grain at this point. The width is laid out and marked by a line running with the grain, parallel to the edge.

The stock is cut to its rough size by the use of a handsaw, the crosscut handsaw being used to cut across the grain and the rip handsaw to cut with the grain.